Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


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• Updated: 2017-05-27 21:00:06.350843Z

  1. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Also today a good day, thanks to God.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  2. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Based on the reactor dimensions, it appears a reasonable estimate of the amount of nickel in the reactor is about 0.5 grams, which would contain about 5 x 10**21 nickel atoms.

    Likewise, generating 20W of thermal power for 300 days yields about 518 MJ.

    Assuming the 58Ni + 4H1 -> 62Ni and mass defect, suggests that about 10**20 reactions occur.

    So it looks like the fuel will be about 2% exhausted. This assumes some other necessary component, such as lithium, is not first exhausted.

    Question: is 300 days really the duration when fuel exhaustion occurs?

  3. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    I do not know yet, for lack of experience.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  4. Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I noticed that the size of the E-Cat QuarkX is identical to the small fuse in my electronic multimeter. Is there existing equipment that you designed the QuarkX to “plug-in” to, or is the “fuse” size of the QuarkX just a coincidence?

    Happy Memorial Day weekend.

    Best Regards,

    Daniel G. Zavela

  5. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel G. Zavela:
    It is a coincidence.
    Happy Memorial Day also to you and to all our American Readers !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  6. sceptic guy

    Mr Rossi:
    Do you agree that until you make a presentation with a test as credible as the Lugano test the QuarkX cannot be considered a real thing?

  7. Andrea Rossi

    Sceptic Guy:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  8. M.

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    The power density of the QuarkX makes it a veritable game changer.
    Godspeed,
    M.

  9. Andrea Rossi

    M.:
    Maybe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  10. Rudy

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Thank you for your great work.
    About jet engines: due to the energy density of the QuarkX, it still has strong chances if aerospace applications.
    Cheers,
    Rudy

  11. Andrea Rossi

    Rudy:
    Maybe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  12. Drew G

    Dr. Rossi:

    There is an ongoing black box test of a LENR reactor being conducted by the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project(MFMP). See: http://www.e-catworld.com/2017/05/26/friday-may-25-mfmp-testing-me356-reactor/ It should be of interest especially if it proves over unity gain with a high COP.

  13. Andrea Rossi

    Drew G.:
    Before any comment, I need to read a report with all the data of the experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  14. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    There still seems to be confusion on the mass and dimensions of the QuarkX. When you speak of the QuarkX, what components does this include: (e.g., reactor, controller, sensors… or just the reactor portion)? See the following exchange:

    Andrea Rossi
    May 26, 2017 at 2:23 PM
    Steven N. Karels:
    The weight I indicated is the weight of the QuarkX, as per request of the Reader.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Steven N. Karels
    May 26, 2017 at 1:28 PM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    The mass and volume of the quark have me confused. I understood you to report the dimensions of a Quark unit was a length of 10mm and a diameter of 5mm. As Dr. Fine computed, this yields a volume of 196.35 cubic millimeters or 0.19635 cc or 0.19635 ml. The density of nickel is 8.9 grams/ml. So the mass of the Quark should be about 1.75 grams but you stated tens of grams. Please clarify.

    Joseph Fine
    May 23, 2017 at 8:40 AM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    According to the QuarkX dimensions of D = 5 mm and L = 10 mm, the volume of each unit is approximately 196.35 cubic millimeters. For a rating of 20 W, power density is about 0.102 W/cubic millimeter (Or ~0.1 W/cu. mm).
    There are 10^9 cubic millimeters in a cubic meter, so a volume of 1 cubic meter might (ideally) enclose a system with a rating of about 10^8 Watts or 100 MW.
    Obviously, other components (Heat transfer, structural, instrumentation/control) must be incorporated into a system of 1000 modules or any other large scale system of systems.
    At this time, can you mention/estimate the volume of, for example, a complete 10 kW or 20 kW system?
    If better is the enemy of the good, you may have reached the best.
    Congratulations to you and your team for your/their achievements.
    Per aspera ad astra.
    Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi
    May 22, 2017 at 7:51 PM
    A.Ashfield:
    Now the dimensions are length 10 mm, diameter 5 mm, the rating is 20 W. It is the one that will be exposed in the demonstration that should happen this year.
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    A. Ashfield
    May 22, 2017 at 5:54 PM
    Dr Rossi:
    As the QuarkX has changed over the last year, can you tell us the current approximate size and power of the QuarkX that is undergoing the Sigma 5 test?
    Is it the one you will be demonstrating this year?
    I wish you all the best for your endeavors,
    A. Ashfield

  15. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Just the reaction portion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  16. Paul

    Andrea,

    With regards to the Quark X volume you have mentioned: Am I right to assume that it is the volume of the Quark X that heats up?

    V/R

    Paul

  17. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  18. Rodney Nicholson

    When Andrea said: “…. The weight is several tens of grams …..”

    I wonder if, because of language difficulties, he had meant to say: “….. several tenths of a gram” ?

    Rodney Nicholson.

  19. Andrea Rossi

    Rodney Nicholson:
    No, I meant what I wrote and I referred to the weight of the QuarkX, not of the charge.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  20. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The mass and volume of the quark have me confused. I understood you to report the dimensions of a Quark unit was a length of 10mm and a diameter of 5mm. As Dr. Fine computed, this yields a volume of 196.35 cubic millimeters or 0.19635 cc or 0.19635 ml. The density of nickel is 8.9 grams/ml. So the mass of the Quark should be about 1.75 grams but you stated tens of grams. Please clarify.

  21. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    The weight I indicated is the weight of the QuarkX, as per request of the Reader.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  22. Ingemar

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Are there data available about the electricity made directly by the QuarkX?

  23. Andrea Rossi

    Ingemar:
    Not yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  24. Andrea Rossi

    Andrea Moraitis:
    The weight is several tens of grams and is operating one year since the start. During this period has worked at least 300 days 24/7.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  25. Andreas Moraitis

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Of course, there will be no measureable mass difference as long as the casing remains intact. What I meant with my first question is that one might want to compare the reactor’s output with the amount of energy that could be released by the most gainful exothermic chemical reactions, related to the mass of the reactants. For example, the reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen will release about 4.4 Wh per gram. If the mass of the reactor were ten grams, it would have to produce more than 44 Wh to exceed this ‘chemical limit’.

    Best regards,
    Andreas Moraitis

  26. Miriam

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How is your health? Are you recovering from the three surgeries you got in April?
    Take care of yourself, you are too important for us all!
    Godspeed,
    Miriam

  27. Andrea Rossi

    Miriam:
    Thank you for your concern.
    I am perfectly healed: I won this fight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  28. Gian

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    The power density of the QuatkX is impressive. Are you sure of these data?
    Gian

  29. Andrea Rossi

    Gian:
    No, until we’ll have completed the R&D cycle.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  30. Andreas Moraitis

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I am glad to hear that you have recovered well from your surgery.

    Here are two questions regarding the QuarkX:

    1 – What is its approximate mass (important to know if one wants to exclude chemical reactions)?
    2 – In the presentation, would it be possible to use a battery or an ultracapacitor whose maximum energy content is lower than the expected output of the reactor? By recharging and discharging it once after the test (more convenient with the capacitor) you could make the experiment even more ‘watertight’.

    Best regards,
    Andreas Moraitis

  31. Andrea Rossi

    Andreas Moraitis:
    1- the mass does not change during the operation, whatever the duration of the operation
    2- no, because such a device could not feed the control system. To measure the amount of direct current consumed by an apparatus is very easy
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  32. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    7 A.M. in the factory and the QuarkX is good.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  33. Anonymous

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Based on what you wrote, the QuarkX has a volume of about 0.1 cubic cm: since i liter contains 1000 cubic cm, the density of power of a QuarkX is:
    1000/0.1 = 10000 QuarkX per liter
    Each QuarkX is rated 20 W, therefore we have 20 x 10000 = 200 kW/liter !!!
    Am I correct?

  34. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    You have to add the volume necessary to exchange the heat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  35. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Great day today: very good measurements, all confirmed so far. Definitely on our way toward Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing
    Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems
    B Göksel1*, I Ch Mashek2
    1 Electrofluidsystems Ingenieurbüro Göksel, Berlin, Germany
    2 St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
    *
    Email: berkant.goeksel@electrofluidsystems.com
    Abstract. A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is
    achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have
    been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus
    discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond
    electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main
    discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies
    from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma
    propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area
    ratios (50-150 kN/m²) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and
    airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power
    could be provided by future compact plasma fusion reactors already in development by aerospace
    companies. The magneto-plasma compressor itself was originally developed by Russian scientists as
    plasma fusion device and was later miniaturized for supersonic flow control applications. So the first
    breakthrough is based on a spin-off plasma fusion technology.

    http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/825/1/012005/pdf

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    i have an idea to test my theory on RF pulses. You could rent or pay for use a Magnetic Resonance apparatus, not necessarily a medic one. There are also little high field MR for spectroscopy of chemicals, with a small gantry. There you could insert a QuarkX “pellet” and see if the scan triggers some LENR reaction… In those apparatus the field and the RF pulses are accurately calibrated to give the maximum energy to the atomic species of interest…

    Regards,
    Marco.

  39. Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  40. Ron Stringer

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I am using the term “cradle to cradle” loosely – it is a design philosophy that plans a product from its creation through to its recycling or re-use. Ideally, the materials gained from recycling the product would be used in the manufacture of the next generation of products.
    So, you design your products with the recycling and re-use of the materials in mind.
    I find the logic game of our interactions rather enjoyable – what I have learned thus far is that spent units will be returned to the factory. If you bother collecting them, it would seem that you have the intent on recycling of some kind. Two alternatives: you can use the materials to make new units, or you can refuel and reuse the units. The units will not be dismantled for the production of new units. But the spent units will not simply be refuelled in the same state they are returned from the users.
    So, it looks like the units will be dismantled , but not for the production of new units (yes or no?). The old quarkx units will be refuelled for reuse (yes or no?).
    All the best.
    Ron

  41. Andrea Rossi

    Ron Stringer:
    I understand. We will just substitute the QuarkXes in the locations of the Customers and the retrieved units will be returned to our factories to be recharged and recycled. In this sense, we can define this a “cradle to cradle” cycle.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  42. Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    I see that I did not understand properly. Thrust and Power math is more interesting than I suspected … I checked here to find out more and why.

    http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/propulsion/q0195.shtml

    Please excuse my mistake, I still am very excited by the QuarkX power density. Wow.

    Great work!

    Tom

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    No problem: I have to use math every day and still I too make mistakes. We all make mistakes.
    Thank you for your kind attention.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Franco Buccella- INFN

    Dear Readers of the JoNP:
    Has been published the book ” Preparata pathway: how quantum fields keep all matter together”, the editor is Bibliopolis, Napoli (Italy) May 2017.
    In this book Prof Preparata, prematurely passed away during the year 2000, made a general theory on the matter coherence based upon the quantistic electrodynamic, such a theory being able to explain a large class of phenomenons.
    Regards,
    Franco Buccella, INFN, Italy

  45. Andrea Rossi

    Franco Buccella- INFN:
    Thank you for the information about the theory of Prof Preparata, that also involved the LENR.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  46. Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    I found that a typical Boeing 747-400 engine requires 63300 ft.lbf/s per engine to fly, and that 1 megawatt (MW) of power equals 737,562 foot pounds per second (ft lbf/s) in power. So a typical Boeing 747-400 would need about 4 megawatt (MW) of power onboard to fly … or about 250,000 ft.lbf/s.

    The Boeing 747-400 (aka Airbus A330) uses the CF6-80E1 jet engine which produces 68,000 to 72,000 lbf to power the Airbus A330 (with 4 engines).

    http://www.gravity.co/#tech
    Richard Browning has invented, built, flown and filed a patent for the suit, which he calls “Daedalus”, paving the way for an entirely new aviation category.

    Warmest Regards,

    Tom

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_747-400
    CF6-80E1 jet engine produces 68,000 to 72,000 lbf to power the Airbus A330.

    http://www.convert-units.info/power/megawatt/1
    1 MW = 737562 ft.lbf/s (foot pound per sec.)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Electric_CF6
    The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. …. The CF6-80A, which has a thrust rating of 48,000 to 50,000 lb (214 to 222 kN), powered two twinjets, the Boeing 767 and Airbus A310.

    https://www.quora.com/How-many-horsepower-is-a-Boeing-747-Jet
    The Boeing 747–400 needs a total of 63,300 lbf * of thrust to cruise at 567 mph or 49,896 feet/min. The work done in one minute is a force of 63,300 lbf over 49,896 feet in one minute or 3,158,416,800 lbf-ft per minute.

    http://www.traditionaloven.com/tutorials/power/convert-mega-watt-mw-to-ft-lbf-per-seconds.html
    Amount: 1 megawatt (MW) of power
    Equals: 737,562.15 foot pounds per second (ft lbf/s) in power

  47. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Thank you for your insight.
    I am not expert of aerospace engineering, but I am not convinced of the numbers. As far as I know, a Boeing 747- 400 has 4 engines each of them having a thrust of 41,500 ft lbs/s.
    Making some math, we’d have 4 x 3 x 41,500 x 0.745 = 371.3 MW of power. Surely the conversion 1 lbf/s = 3 HP is variable, because depends on many factors, but the ballpark remains the same.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  48. Stephen

    Dear Andrea Rossi, the next weeks and months seem to be particularly important. I wish and all your team positive strength and good health over this period. I have the strong impression the time for this technology becoming better know and understood is soon upon us. I’m very hopeful about it.

    The QuarkX seems more and more interesting the more we hear about it and the technology of ECat and your other devices seem more and more intriguing as a consequence too.

    I wonder if I may ask a few questions about the thermal behavior of your devices (I apologize if some of them are a bit ignorant)

    1. I think you mentioned the QuarkX could be turned On quite quickly in a few seconds?
    2. Does the QuarkX reach the operational output temperature quickly too? If so does it a) instantly at temperature at switch on or b) takes a few seconds b) a few minutes c) longer
    3. Is the output temperature from the device directly from the LENR process it self?
    4. Or Does thermal and kinetic effects from sorbtion of Hydrogen have a significant role in the out put temperature of your ECat device?
    5. Or does the output heat of the device have some other origin.
    6. I think you mentioned the device thermal behavior is quite complex and is a matter of integration. May I ask Is this integration over time? Space (surface or volume) Both or something more complex?

    I wish you and your team the best over this important period. It must be amazing and fascinating seeing the technology develop and evolve.

  49. Andrea Rossi

    Stephen:
    1. yes
    2. few minutes
    3. yes
    4. no
    5. no
    6. more complex
    Thank you for your kind wishes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  50. Ron Stringer

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Thank you for your reply. So, each Quarkx is physically connected to its control system, BUT, you don’t need to disconnect to recycle. That is interesting. Could we have a little clarification, please?
    I assume a “unit” to consist of a set of multiple quarkx devices, connected to some supporting hardware.
    For the user:
    1. spent units will be removed and replaced, with the spent units being returned to the manufacturer for recycling. Yes or No?
    For the manufacturer:
    1. spent units will be dismantled/destroyed and new units manufactured from the materials. Yes or No?
    2. spent units will be refuelled, without removing them from the support hardware. Yes or No?
    3. Some other arrangement. Yes or No?
    I am assuming you have designed with a “cradle to cradle” approach. Yes or No?
    All the best.
    Ron

  51. Andrea Rossi

    Ron Stringer:
    1A: yes
    1B: no
    2: no
    3: yes
    4: what do you mean in this case with “cradle to cradle”, exactly ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  52. Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: Do you think you need to show economic benefits of your intellectual property to win the court battle against Darden?

  53. Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Sorry, I cannot discuss here issues related to the litigation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  54. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your comments are very interesting.

    1. For a projection of refueling once per year to be commercially meaningful, that implies that the majority of Quark units within a grouping are functioning over that refueling interval. For example, if a unit contains 1,000 Quark individual reactors, yielding 20 kW of thermal power capability, then one would expect that perhaps 90% of them would still be functioning at the end of one year. This suggests the failure rate (not fuel depletion but an actual fault occurring) must be much greater than one year. Do you agree?

    2. You stated that there are no wires connecting to the Quark, no need to unscrew the Quark. This suggests to me an electrical connection, similar to an electrical fuse or a fluorescent light tube. You apparently still need to provide some form of energy to the Quark individual reactor to control it, to activate it and to shut it down. Can you clarify your statement?

  55. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- No
    2- No
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  56. Giuseppe

    Dear Andrea,
    does the output temperature of a single quark is direct proportional to its dimension, lenght or diameter?
    Regards, Giuseppe

  57. Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe:
    No, the issue is much more complicated. It derives from a system of integrals.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  58. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    The modules are independent. If a module fails there is no reason for others to fail. They are not interacting between them, they just sum up their heat. A shutdown happens in seconds. Every QuarkX can be shutdown independently.
    By the way, nothing exists that can never fail: remember the words of the commander of the Titanic: “This ship is unsinkable”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  59. Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    If you build and test a system with 100’s or 1000’s of modules, and one or several modules fail, it is presumed that individual units/modules fail safely. That is, all of the other modules will continue to function undamaged. At least that is the goal.

    Have you considered building/testing a multiple module system to see if a module can fail “gracefully”?

    Can you prevent a failing module from damaging the other ones? Or, can you shut down an individual module fast enough?

    How fast does each or all of the modules respond to a shutdown signal? (Minutes? Seconds, Milliseconds? etc.)

    Do all system modules have to be shutdown simultaneously, or can you operate a Quarkx with a few damaged modules?

    Or can the system be made so robust, that the individual modules will almost never fail?

    That might be the best way.

    Multiple regards,

    Joseph Fine

  60. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    You are right.
    I must be sincere: when I work on the QuarkX I am stunned myself.
    But it is working and spectrometry and calorimetry are conciliable.
    I am not ready to tell you the power density after the application of all the components, also because there are very different possibilities, also depending on the applications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  61. Andrea Rossi

    Vitaly & Irina Uzikov:
    You will be for sure invited.
    About your technology, I am very surprised that you did not yet receive a proposal ro make a prototype: your tech maybe a solution for an extremely important issue related to the nuclear wastes.
    Fingers crossed for your success ( you would merit it),
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  62. Ron Stringer

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Marco has an interesting point – working with a device so small presents difficulties! I am really looking forward to seeing how you have dealt with this. Are the Quarkx units to be strung like beads, screwed into a fixture or mounted on a board, or just piled in a heap in a fancy high-tech bucket?
    Most of your engineering challenges are well beyond me, but this one I might understand!
    So, two questions, if you don’t mind.
    1. Does each Quarkx unit require a physical connection to the control system?
    2. When it comes time to recycle the spent units, will this require undoing that physical connection (cutting wires, desoldering or unscrewing from a fixture)?
    I wish you the best of luck with your court case, and look forward to seeing the presentation of the Quarkx!
    Ron Stringer

  63. Andrea Rossi

    Ron Stringer:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Thank you for your kindness,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  64. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwe’:
    I do not think the dimensions will change anymore, but I like the joke ( he,he,he…)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  65. Prof

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    The dimensions you indicared for a 20 W retaed QuarkX give a power density enouth to be useful for jet engines: did you know this?

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Yes. The power density of the QuarkX appears to be very high.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    On your way to sigma 5, does it mean you still have to change the dimensions of the Quark X:
    i) from time to time?
    ii) every time?

    So, referring to the tale of the sculptor in a recent message of Italo R., he wrote: ‘…One day the sculptor went to his laboratory and didn’t find the statue’… because it became too small? 😉 (Just a joke). I wish you all good luck in finding the right dimensions and/or solving all remaining problems.

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel

  68. Vitaly and Irina Uzikov

    Dear Vic,
    For now the technology still wasn’t implemented, but we are always ready to cooperate with interested companies and to provide them necessary documents and information about the method of reducing of liquid radioactive waste. Dear Andrea , we are waiting impatiently the presentation of QuarkX
    Kind regards,
    Vitaly and Irina Uzikov

  69. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    According to the QuarkX dimensions of D = 5 mm and L = 10 mm, the volume of each unit is approximately 196.35 cubic millimeters. For a rating of 20 W, power density is about 0.102 W/cubic millimeter (Or ~0.1 W/cu. mm).

    There are 10^9 cubic millimeters in a cubic meter, so a volume of 1 cubic meter might (ideally) enclose a system with a rating of about 10^8 Watts or 100 MW.

    Obviously, other components (Heat transfer, structural, instrumentation/control) must be incorporated into a system of 1000 modules or any other large scale system of systems.

    At this time, can you mention/estimate the volume of, for example, a complete 10 kW or 20 kW system?

    If better is the enemy of the good, you may have reached the best.

    Congratulations to you and your team for your/their achievements.

    Per aspera ad astra.

    Joseph Fine

  70. Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    you shared the current size of the QuarkX. It seems similar to wood pellets. Is there a way to use them as wood pellets? I was thinking of a big coil, used as an oven/stove in which those “pellets” will be put, maybe with some type of conductive sand to avoid air voids, and then the reaction is triggered. Maybe with my idea of strong magnetic fields and calibrated RF pulse, the ignition temperature can be reduced and so single coils around one (or few) quarkX will not be needed anymore…

    Regards,
    Marco.

  71. Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    I am not able to answer, but for many reasons it appears to be very difficult.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  72. Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,
    Regarding the dimensions of the QuarkX 20W reactor, that is so incredibly small. Smaller than the smallest batteries you’d find in commercial gadgets and toys.
    What is the input power that it requires?
    Best regards
    Patrick

  73. Andrea Rossi

    Patrick Ellul:
    The technical characteristics will be given when the QuarkX will be presented.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  74. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    We are continuing to perform well.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  75. Tom Conover

    Hi Andrea,

    I found this site:

    http://sixsigmastudyguide.com/process-capability-cp-cpk/

    using this google query:

    https://www.google.com/search?q=calculating+sigma+values+using+integratation+formula&oq=calculating+sigma+values+using+integratation+formula&aqs=chrome..69i57.20153j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#q=calculation+product+stability+using+sigma+values+based+on+integration+formula

    … which in almost English asks google how to calculate sigma values using integration formulas.

    I think this site may have helped me to understand your methods better, but …

    Does this site describe the methods you are using to measure the QuarkX performance?

    Warmest regards to you AND your team,

    Tom

  76. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Substantially, yes.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  77. Silvio Caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Still a question about 5-sigma…
    Which scenario describes best QuarkX reality?
    A) QuarkX is under a long test which progression is a march toward 5-sigma
    B) QuarkX is under development and at each stage you reach a better sigma but you have to solve problems in order to reach 5-sigma
    Regards

  78. Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    A)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  79. A. Ashfield

    Dr Rossi:
    As the QuarkX has changed over the last year, can you tell us the current approximate size and power of the QuarkX that is undergoing the Sigma 5 test?
    Is it the one you will be demonstrating this year?
    I wish you all the best for your endeavors,
    A. Ashfield

  80. Andrea Rossi

    A.Ashfield:
    Now the dimensions are length 10 mm, diameter 5 mm, the rating is 20 W. It is the one that will be exposed in the demonstration that should happen this year.
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  81. Ping

    Dear Dr. Ing Andrea Rossi:
    QuarkX is fantastic! Do you have any potential customers yet?
    Cheers, Godspeed, God bless you and Regards,
    Ping

  82. Andrea Rossi

    Ping:
    Yes.
    Thank you for your kind wishes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  83. Prof

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I follow every day your comments and I want to testimony how I admire your efforts to reach a perfect result with your magnificent invention, so important for all of us.
    God bless you,
    Prof

  84. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you also from my Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  85. Dr.Rossi
    You have not reached yet sigma 5 and this is your usual reply but the question is: do you see the finishing line and how much time it’s need to wait for watching some good result of your work ?
    Warm Regards
    Giorgio

  86. Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    Let me humbly remind you that “some good result” of our work has already been published. You can go to
    http://www.leonardocorporation.com
    to find publications, tests, demonstrations and replications.
    If you refer to the QuarkX, as I suppose since you cite the Sigma, I still think it will be presented within the current year.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  87. domenico canino

    Dear Andrea,
    A simple question; Is the light of Quark-X sonoluminescence?
    Thanks if you can answer.
    Warm (and luminous) Regards

  88. Andrea Rossi

    Domenico Canino:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  89. Greg Leonard

    Dear AR
    Your answer to Dima Redko leads me to ask after the jet engine research. I believe you have quoted 2700C as a core temperature of the QuarkX – that would surely work well in powering a jet.
    How is that project proceeding?
    With many thanks for your inspiration and perspiration,
    Greg Leonard

  90. Andrea Rossi

    Greg Leonard:
    Good point, that is an R&D thread we have to go through.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  91. A Goumy

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Are you still making improvements on the QuarkX, or is the design now stable, so you just have to make tests and measurements?
    Warm Regards,
    A.G.

  92. Andrea Rossi

    A Goumy:
    We have not yet reached Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  93. Dear Andrea,
    this german team developed a magnet-plasma engine for future jet planes… but they need a lot of electric power… your QuarkX could help?

    https://avampostostellarelojano.wordpress.com/2017/05/22/propulsore-magneto-plasma-per-jet-stratosferici/

    Best Regards, lavoLale lavoLale
    Enrico Billi

  94. Andrea Rossi

    M.Sc. Enrico Billi:
    I am not able to answer so far.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  95. Fidel Skillman

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Do you use the oscilloscope to control the behavior of the QuarkX?

  96. Andrea Rossi

    Fidel Skillman:
    The oscilloscope with the QuarkX is useless, because it works with direct current.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  97. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Today a long series of measurements. So far so good.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  98. Dima Redko

    Dear Andrea Rossi!

    In the past you were also interested in coupling E-cat with external combustion engine. Can you please update us about this issue?

  99. Andrea Rossi

    Dima Redko:
    Probably you refer to the Stirling Engine.
    There is no reason why the E-Cat could not fuel an external combustion engine, since what this kind of engines need is just enough heat to expand a fluid. We did not proceed with this kind of R&D, though, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  100. Abram

    Dr Rossi,

    Could you comment on this:

    Axil Axil: IMHO, LENR is produced with the aid of monopole magnetic field lines.

    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-05/au-doa051717.php

  101. Andrea Rossi

    Abram:
    Magnetic monopoles do not exist: if you cut from a magnet the N pole or a S pole of it, the two pieces you obtain still will have N and S pole. Easy to experiment. There are around hypotheses about the existence of magnetic monopoles, but never they have been really observed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  102. Tracy

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Which is the maintenance cost per kWh of the energy produced by means of the QuarkX?

  103. Andrea Rossi

    Tracy:
    I cannot yet give the exact numbers, but I can assure that the maintenance costs are not higher than the maintenance costs of the most common heat generators.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  104. Samuel

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Yo have recently dismissed such “rumors”, but in the highest echelons of the scientific world they are talking of an extremely important replication of the Rossi Effect that has been financed by a giant of the industrial world: are you sure you know nothing about this fact? Are you expecting the publication of a very important replication?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Samuel

  105. Andrea Rossi

    Samuel:
    I did not receive any report related to recent replications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  106. Curiosone

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    I read today the book “Ecat the New Fire” of the psychologist Vessela Nikolova and I found it very interesting and rich of events I didn’t read about before. A veritable page turner.
    Do you confirm all the events narrated by the author?
    C.

  107. Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  108. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    to find comments published today in other posts of this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  109. ruclimb

    Hi Dr. Rossi
    I’m writing from Italy

    Buongiorno Dr. Rossi. Volevo porre un quesito. Mettendo da parte la questione della causa legale presso la corte americana, ho letto alcuni commenti in una pagina facebook o un blog che parlavano di problemi di manutenzione legati all’ecat. Ma è realmente così? Lo chiedo perché sono molti anni che seguo gli sviluppi di questo faticoso lavoro a cavallo tra invenzione e ricerca – che trovo tra l’altro interessantissimo e rivoluzionario – quindi vorrei capirci qualcosa di più e se davvero questi commenti sono da prendere in considerazione, poiché Lei e, a quel tempo, il Prof. Focardi non avevate mai posto questo problema. Mi spiacerebbe che rumors ostili mettano in cattiva luce i suoi sforzi.
    Sarebbe possibile avere delucidazioni?
    Grazie.
    Graziano Ruggiero

    ENGLISH SYNOPSIS:
    Do your E-Cats have maintenance problems?
    Thank you

  110. Andrea Rossi

    Ruclimb:
    Our products will not have any particular maintenance issue, nor our prototypes and products made so far had any particular maintenance issue. The maintenance of our products is not more complicated that the maintenance of a normal heat production system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  111. Dr. Rossi, WHAT A WONDERFUL WORLD
    ONLY IN THE LAST 100 YEARS WE HAVE HAD THE BENEFIT OF:
    Air Travel, at Jet speed.
    Auto, we can travel anywhere there is a road.
    Trucks, of all types, that we use for a great benefit.
    Electricity, make a list of all the things you use that need electricity.
    Phone, we can call anyone anywhere in the World that has a phone.
    Central Air-Conditioning for the Home.
    Home computer.
    Super computer
    Electron Microscope.
    Radar.
    Internet.
    Video, that you can make, or view.
    Radio.
    Television.
    Movies, you can make yourself or watch Made in Hollywood at your local Theater.
    Helicopter 1939 used in many ways, to our great benefit.
    Does this mean we live in a perfect World ? Far from it.
    Ask anyone that has a computer.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale florida
    USA

  112. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Don’t forget the medical science: today the life expectancy of a human is ninety years, a century ago was seventy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  113. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Also today on our way toward Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  114. Suni

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Thank you for the suggestion about the movie “The Concert”: I watched the movie today and it is very inspiring.
    Cheers,
    Suni

  115. Andrea Rossi

    Suni:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  116. Lars Lindberg

    Dear Andrea,
    have you tried the QuarkX or Ecat with some kind of steam generator to produce electricity? If not, have you planed to do it?

  117. Andrea Rossi

    Lars Lindberg:
    We did not yet, but when it will be necessary it will be easy: that is well consolidated technology, all the components necessary to make a Carnot cycle are off the shelf.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  118. Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, a tale:
    Once upon a time there was a perfectionist sculptor that was never satisfied about the statue he was carveting. Day after day he was working on his object searching for a better and beautiful statue. And indeed it was becoming more beatiful and amazing during the months and years of hard work. He was getting old and becoming ill, and his wife was becoming very impatient and tired.
    One day the sculptor went to his laboratory and didn’t find the statue.
    His wife had taken it to show the statue to the world.
    Honors, moneys, prizes!!

    A question: is your wife impatient?

    (Obviously this is a joke, but in this planet there are a lot of people increasingly impatient – please, try to show to the world your QuarkX as soon as possible…).

    Kind regards,
    Italo R.

  119. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    It is not a matter of patience or impatience, it is matter to be ready or not.
    I cannot make mistakes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  120. Ho letto la sua storia (an Impossible invention) e indagato sulla sua vita sul web. La sua storia è incredibile e mi ha aperto gli occhi, quindi mi ha dato la forza di cambiare e ricominciare per come sento dentro.
    Grandissimo!
    Francesco

    English: I have read your story on the book of Mats Lewan ” An Impossible Invention” and eventually I have investigated on your life. The story of your life is unbelievable and has inspired me to change my life too and to be as resilient as you have been.
    Great!
    Francesco

  121. Andrea Rossi

    Francesco M. Galloppa:
    I am glad to have been useful for something related to your life.
    If my sympathy is correct, I suggest you to watch the movie “The Concert” ( “Il Concerto”) of Mihaileanu: it is the story of a Russian Orchestra director.
    I think it is among the best movies of the last 50 years. Strangely, it has not got the attention of the big public, but I assure you: it is a masterpiece.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  122. Andrea Rossi

    xyzt:
    Thank you for your kind words. About the replication: thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  123. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You wrote: “Very glad of our QuarkX, our Team is more enthusiast by the way.”

    Why do you think your team is “more enthusiastic” these days?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  124. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    You know, we too were very sceptical when we found this new order of magnitude of COP and power density, so anytine we make measurements both with Wien and Boltzmann equations after spectrometry and get a certain COP, eventually we make calorimetric measurements and get the same order of magnitude of COP we are very enthusiast, also because now we are arrived at a Sigma rating very high, albeit lower than 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  125. Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    Our vacation in Florida was indeed one of our best trips ever, especially our experiences with the very friendly manatees and the beautiful butterflies that we were able to visit with. Truly a special part of the earth, Florida is an exquisite delight.

    I would like to comment on Marco’s insightful comment, and encourage you indeed to setup most likely a complete branch of experiments to determine the proximity of his hypothesis to your work. I suspect he is head on to target.

    However, please also remember your morning of a couple days ago, as you watched the sun rise and told us that it made you realize that that will parallel in many ways the birth of the QuarkX. I will be a guiding light of sorts to the future of energy, as no doubt, the automobile industry is beginning to realize.

    I say this because you are gifted with such a creative spirit, that I must caution you not to get immersed in deep research (again) and delay the planned manufacturing of the Quark Technology. It may indeed be perfect for your next product line perhaps, and your history proves that you have no tolerance for less than the ultimate.

    We all hope that you will not delay for another two or three years because you get distracted with an important upgrade to your technology. The SUN needs to rise, Andrea.

    Thank you from the bottom of my heart. May I ask you for an honest answer to the following two very important questions:

    Q1: Can you promise us today that you will not delay
    manufacturing because of a new discovery again? (Y/N)

    Q2: Will you let the SUN rise on schedule for the world? (Y/N)

    Thank you!

    Warmest Regards!

    Tom

  126. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    I agree about Florida.
    Thank you for your suggestion related to the comment of Marco.
    I agree on the fact that now we must make the industrialization as soon as possible, we are aiming at it.
    Answers:
    Q1: Yes
    Q2: Yes
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  127. xyzt...sson

    Dr Andrea Rossi
    I am so glad to read about you happy with your QuarkX and healed, after the three difficult surgeries you sustained a month ago. I can’t wait to see the presentation of the QuarkX, but… I heard that an extremely important replication has been made of your Effect, just copying your patent and, if confirmed, it should be a dramatically important replication: have you knowledge of it?
    Godspeed,
    A Swedish friend

  128. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Also today we are working without substantial problems and out job is proceeding very well, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  129. Vic

    Dr Vitaly and Irina Uzikov:
    I find your technology to reduce radioactive wastes very interesting.
    Since the publication of your paper here did you have the opportunity to make applications of it? It could be very useful also in the concern of Hanford, WA.
    Regards,
    Vic

  130. Andrea Rossi

    Vic:
    I agree with you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  131. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    comments published today on other posts of this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  132. Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding magnetic fields I am very curious. I am a researcher in the medical field and have access to magnetic resonance devices, with fields up to 3 Tesla. I ever wondered if a strong magnetic field can increase the hydrogen loading in nickel lattice or reaction rate, since a strong magnetic field has a big effect on hydrogen atoms.

    Nickel is a ferromagnetic element, so it should further increase the local magnetic field.
    Hydrogen atoms subject to a magnetic field tend to align with it: the stronger, the lesser the casual orientation of the atoms spin. Another property of hydrogen (along with each atom with odd number of protons or neutrons) is the resonance. For hydrogen subject to a magnetic field of B Tesla, it is susceptible to an RF pulse of 43.5*B MHz center frequency. (43.5MGz is called the Gyromagnetic ratio).
    This means that an aligned hydrogen atom, can be excited with a such RF pulse. The more the intensity, the more the energy absorbed. Then the hydrogen atom returns to the quiescent state with a time constant depending on the material in which is immersed. This is exploited in the magnetic resonance devices to detect which material the hydrogen is immersed in.
    But we don’t care of this behaviour, becouse we care only of the fact that an RF pulse can give energy to hydrogen atoms. This can increase the reaction rate into an Ecat: excited atoms are more prone to reaction: we know tha temperature is one of the contro factor. But heat is unordered oscillation of the atoms, while an RF pulse on hydrogen aligned with a magnetic field is an ordered oscillation. If the nickel lattice is regular enough (i am thinking of a solid rod instead of a powder, but also in a powder there should be an effect), an ordered oscillation is better of a chaoitc oscillation. At worst it should have the same effect of heat.
    I don’t know if you have a codified method to calculate the frequency of the RF pulses to give to the Ecat, but here there is the possible theoretic background:
    A DC current in the coil, with nickel mixture in the inside, produce a magnetic field of B Tesla (you can measure it). Then, the best RF pulse to att to the DC component should have 43.5*B MHz as main frequency. The more the intensity, the more the “cadence”, the more energy you give to the hydrogen atoms. It can even happen that a strong enough RF pulse train can start the reactions even with cold reactor. This can be a method to trigger the reaction even at “low” temperature. Obviously the RF pulse intensity should be lowered with the increase of the reactor temperature.

    This can also explain the instabilities that you may have detected during the R&D phase and the increase of the reaction rate with some RF pulses: RF pulses have multiple frequency harmonics and probabily one of them excited hydrogen atoms immersed in the low magnetic field of the coil.

    Here i gave a theory and a possible direction of research…

    Regards,
    Marco

  133. Andrea Rossi

    Marco.
    Thank you for the interesting suggestion, that is worth an experiment. I have not experienced this before.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  134. Ronald

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I strongly feel that you will not disappoint us and I am sure we will see your masterpiece, the QuarkX, in operation within this year.
    Godspeed,
    Ron

  135. Andrea Rossi

    Ronald:
    I am optimistic about this ( but I am always optimistic… )
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  136. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Very glad of our QuarkX, our Team is more enthusiast by the way.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  137. Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    We await the end of July with you! I am interested in the device you mentioned to Frank, and I am wondering a couple of things, if you don’t mind:

    A) Have you completed the final build and the actual device that is to be used at the presentation? (not just a testing setup)
    B) Do you hope to have more that one of these devices at the presentation?
    C) Do you hope to present a device with more than one QuarkX running as a single unit?

    You and your team warm our hearts and soon our factories and homes!

    Tom

  138. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    First of all, I hope your vacation in Florida has been as wonderful as I expect it has been, in this paradise !
    Answers:
    A) yes
    B) we still have not decided
    C) I do not think so
    Thank you for your important sustain,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  139. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Will your eCat reactor start up even when at extremely low temperatures, such as a cold soak at the Earth’s poles?
    2. Will your eCat reactor start up in the presence of large constant or with changing magnetic fields?

  140. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1. yes
    2. depends on the numbers: honestly, we did not make experiments in this sense: interesting point, though
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  141. Yuri

    Dr Andrea Rossi
    1- are you aware of other cars/trucks companies that are trying to replicate your Effect besides Nissan?
    2- can you share more details?

  142. Andrea Rossi

    Yuri:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  143. Ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Woodford tech holding hit by fraud claim
    Industrial Heat, a technology company backed by Neil Woodford, hit by $89 million lawsuit from scientist in dispute over claimed invention.

    http://citywire.co.uk/money/woodford-tech-holding-hit-by-fraud-claim/a911347

  144. Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo de Meo:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  145. Prof

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Do you confirm that the QuarkX can be fueled by regular batteries and that with batteries the COP is the same of the COP that is achieved by means of the grid?

  146. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  147. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Also today the QuarkX is performing well.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  148. Rod

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How is your opinion about the status of the litigation? Do you have enough calm to work well on your R&D?
    Regards,
    Rod

  149. Andrea Rossi

    Rod:
    Of course I am working well, even if half of my time goes to the litigation.
    About how the litigation is going on, we are confident about the solidity of our case and about the evidence we brought in Court.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  150. Alex

    Dear Dr.Andrea Rossi,
    Do the manufacture plant will be powered (also ) by ecats?
    Warm Cheers,
    Alex

  151. Andrea Rossi

    Alex:
    We will use the E-Cats for our internal purposes too. To make thermal power for sure.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  152. Katja K.

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    Are you still on course for Sigma 5?
    Warm Cheers,
    Katja

  153. Andrea Rossi

    Katja K:
    Yes!
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  154. Mindy

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I strongly hope this bad litigation ends as soon as possible to leave you free to work on the E-Cat. This litigation is stealing precious time to your work and you are the sole guy in the world, if any, we can expect from a real application of the LENR. All the competitors of yours have just prepared empty boxes to fill them up with copies of your products as soon as they will hit the market. How many time are you dedicating to your work in percentage, respect the engagements demanded by the litigation?
    God bless you,
    Mindy

  155. Andrea Rossi

    Mindy:
    My working time now is 50% dedicated to the litigation, 50% to the QuarkX, but luckily the trial will end by the end of July, so, at this point, we are in the home stretch.
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  156. Collin

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    There are rumors that an extremely important replication of your Effect has been made in May: do you know anything about this?
    Godspeed,
    C.

  157. Andrea Rossi

    Collin:
    I have not received any report yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  158. Berry

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Today JPR did not ask you the update: do you mind if I do?

  159. Andrea Rossi

    Berry:
    Also today a great day in the factory, I am sending this answer while looking at the QuarkX.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  160. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    comments published on other posts of this blog .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  161. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    It has moved enough.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  162. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It may be time to think about how to show Specific Power (W/kg) and Specific Energy (J/kg) of the QuarkX on a Ragone plot.

    Is it reasonable to predict that the “Red Dot” of the “Ragone plot” has moved a lot?

    Poetic regards,

    Joseph Fine

  163. Dr. Rossi, What is Vasaloppet ?
    I had to look it up.
    Vasaloppet is Swedish for “The Vasa Race.” is an annual long distance cross-country Ski
    Race held on the first Sunday of March.
    The 90km, (56 mile) Course is in Northwestern Sweden. It is the oldest and longest
    cross-country Ski Race in the World, as well as the one with the highest number of
    Participants, 15,800 and Attendance 70,200.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale Florida
    USA

  164. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Correct. I am a decent cross country skier.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  165. Sven

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I am very glad that you have chosen Sweden for the manufacturing of your products for Europe. In Sweden you have a strong support, as I can see among my friends.
    I remember you wrote here long time ago you wanted to make the Vasaloppett…next year, maybe?
    Godspeed,
    Sven

  166. Andrea Rossi

    Sven:
    Yes, the manufacturing will be made in the USA and in Sweden.
    I hope to make the Vasaloppet next year!
    Thank you for your kind words.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  167. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Have you already designed and built the testing setup that you plan to use in the presentation of the QuarkX?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  168. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  169. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You projected a refueling cost of $0.01 per kW and also stated that refueling would be done once per year.

    Assuming a conventional Carnot cycle electricity production plant of 1GW output capacity and a 40% Carnot efficiency means 2.5GW of thermal power generation. This suggests an annual fuel cost of $25,000. During that year, the plant, running continuously, would product 8,760 GWhr of electricity. Or about $3 per GWhr for fuel cost only. Obviously, other costs would add onto the actual delivered price. This assumes a very high COP so that no significant amount of output electricity is diverted to feed the input power.

  170. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  171. Anonymous

    @Ing Antonini:
    We of the silent majority agree with you.
    Cheers,
    Aninymous

  172. Paul

    Andrea,

    What percentage of the input power is consumed by the ballast resistor?

    Paul

  173. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    We consider it irrelevant to be conservative, we put at the denominator of the COP the whole energy consumed by the QuarkX, but obviously some heat is dissipated; I measured a 2% loss.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  174. Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thanks for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  175. Prof

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Are the specific heat and the density of the oil you are using as a fluid to cool down the QuarkX certan and precisely measured?

  176. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Good question, obviously related to the COP measurements.
    We have chosen a specific oil of Shell that has a precise data sheet supplied by the manufacturer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  177. Russell

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Can you tell us what is the COP of the QuarkX?
    I didn’t understand it, yet.
    Cheers,
    Russell

  178. Andrea Rossi

    Russell:
    Not yet, but it’s surely enough.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  179. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Also today is a good day, thanks to God…still on our wat toward Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  180. Ing. Antonini

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    The puppets of the ventriloquist of Raleigh are continuing to talk in the blogs of your past, which makes two considerations pop up:
    First consideration: they use your past because they have not real evidence against you for the litigation, otherwise they would not lose time for archeology (they cite events of 25 years and more ago)
    Second: you have been completely cleared from your taxes issues in Italy and from all the accusations that caused you to go in jail and they know it, but pretend not to know to try to assassinate your character with fraudolent biased journalism
    Third: being the ventriloquist Tom Darden and the pious JT Vaughn so obstentatiously gracious guys, they should read the Gospel where Jesus says “Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?”: I invite the Ventriloquist and the Pious to read the comment sent to this blog from Hugh H. Maguire about a week ago, where are reported the links to the criminal customary activity of Cherokee, that is the mother of Industrial Heat: there we can see that also the “charity” organizations of Cherokee are covers for criminal activity. I am sure that more investigation on this specific issue could reserve stunning surprises.
    And to them who want to know the real story about your past, I suggest to go to http://www.ingandrearossi.com
    Godspeed,
    Ing. Carlo Antonini

  181. Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Antonini:
    No comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  182. Brokeeper

    Dear Andrea,

    To their dismay it’s not a cat but a tiger’s tail IH is holding running around in circles in an attempt from being eaten. :)
    Brokeeper

  183. Andrea Rossi

    Brokeeper:
    No comment,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  184. Abram

    Dr Rossi,

    Can you agree with this Statement:

    Rossi knows his technology works and along the way
    found out that IH are a bunch of unreliable guys
    that wanted to ditch him sooner or later?

  185. Andrea Rossi

    Abram:
    No comment.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  186. Franklin Poehler

    Mr Rossi,
    Don’t you think the classic “hot fusion” will be put in the market before your Ecat, after the interview released by ENEA about the fact that they already obtained the plasma?

  187. Andrea Rossi

    Franklin Poehler:
    We’ll see. ( We will be first by far ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  188. Frankie

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Reading all the published papers of the litigation it seems your foe has brought no evidence at all for the reason they did not pay you and, on the contrary, you gave a lot of evidence of the fact that they have to pay you. I bet you will answer “no comment”.
    Cheers,
    Frankie

  189. Andrea Rossi

    Frankie:
    No comment ( you won the bet ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  190. Calvin Tell

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Do you think that your effect will be able to be applied to ships?

  191. Andrea Rossi

    Calvin Tell:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  192. RPJ

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How much you think will cost the QuarkX tech per kW installed?
    1- more than 1000 $
    2- between 1000 and 500 $
    3- between 300 and 500 $
    4- less than 300 $

  193. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Still on our way toward Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  194. Prof

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    The comment of Hugh H. Maguire is important. Can you make a comment on it not related to what will be discussed in Court?

  195. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  196. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Commercial hydrogen production might be a future application for eCat technology. Using a Sulphur – Iodine cycle and 950 degC thermo source (i.e., an eCat reactor), hydrogen can be produced from water with the Sulphur Iodine being reused. So, at first glance, the eCat technology appears feasible. Perhaps an application in future cars, with hydrogen storage within the vehicle or at the filling stations?

  197. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion. I am not able to answer, because we did not experiment this particular application, yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  198. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “substitution” for refueling an eCat reactor module. Do you envision:

    a. a throw away reactor (like a light bulb) or
    b. is it returned to the eCat factory for refurbishment and refueling (similar to an automotive battery)?
    c. Or does this depend on the size of the eCat reactor unit (20W, 100W, 1kW, 10kW)?

  199. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    b.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  200. arjen

    Dear andrea

    seems like hydrogen can be distracted from water with high temperatures
    see http://www.iflscience.com/technology/scientists-in-germany-switched-on-the-worlds-largest-artificial-sun/

    Are you also looking into this possibility , to use the heat of the quarkx to produce hydrogen?
    or maybe they could use the heat of the quarkx to implement in their system?

    kind regards arjen

  201. Andrea Rossi

    Arjen:
    All that mess to produce hydrogen from water? You can do the same with electrolysis ! I did it with a battery and a glass of water ( 2 $ ). Obviously the issue is how much energy is consumed to separate hydrogen from oxygen, but what you are linking to seems all but energy saving. It looks fit to produce funds from the taxpayer more than energy. With all respect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  202. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    How long do you theorize that a QuarkX can operate without the need for refueling?

    When the time for refueling comes, will a QuarkX actually be refueled, or just replaced with a new unit?

    What do you currently project that the cost of a 1MW QuarkX plant will be, once mass production begins?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  203. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- one year
    2- substitution
    3- premature
    Warm Refards
    A.R.

  204. Lars Lindberg

    Dear Andrea,
    Have you decided what the first mass produced products will be?

  205. Andrea Rossi

    Lars Lindberg:
    We must wait the end of the R&D on the Quarkx.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  206. James

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Why don’t you name the QuarkX E-Cat New Fire, as per your trade mark?
    Cheers,
    James

  207. Andrea Rossi

    James:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  208. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Do you have an update on the projected refueling cost per kW for eCat? I think it could drive an analysis of steam vs CO2 for electricity generation plants. Specifically, if the refueling cost is so low that it makes little difference in the Life Cycle Cost whether it is steam or CO2.

  209. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    The refueling cost could be around 1 cent/kW, but these are still projections with a wide margin of error.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  210. Giuseppe

    Dear Andrea,
    Is it conceivable that in the future, when the QuarkX will be mature, it can be powered only by the battery that will be itself recharged and then disconnected from the grid or anyway from an external power source? This thinking to systems like a car.
    Regards, Giuseppe

  211. Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe:
    It is not impossible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  212. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Still on our way toward Sigma 5. We are very happy also working today.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  213. Eros

    Dr Rossi,

    We know your busy .. but looks like the ventriloquist
    has his own board owning LENRFORUM @ the Playground ))

    Cin-Cin,

    Eros

  214. Andrea Rossi

    Eros:
    he,he,he…yes, we know.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  215. Giuseppe

    Dear Andrea
    Those who are waiting the QuarkX presentation;
    Did you decided if the final name will be QUARK-X or are you thinking to something different.
    Regards, Giuseppe

  216. Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe:
    We’ll see, but I do not think it will be the variable QuarkX, where the ‘X’ stays for a name to be decided.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  217. ihfanboy

    Mr Rossi:
    I have bet with a friend one thousand dollars that the “QuarkX” will not be presented within this year.
    I am convinced the grand is already in my pockets.

  218. Andrea Rossi

    ihfanboy:
    Good luck!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  219. Luigi

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Did you read that Barak Obama has made a speech in your native town of Milan, Italy, regarding the impact of how people eats upon the global warming? What do you think of his speech?

  220. Andrea Rossi

    Luigi:
    Yes, I read aboout the speech of the President Barak Obama in Milan: very interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  221. Andrea Rossi

    We are here in the factory and the work proceeds pretty well.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  222. Zion

    Dr Rossi,

    Talk about -Fake News- there is plenty to go around on the LENRFORUM,
    but I have seen this link Titled “Anatomy of a Deal New Jersey Style”
    after reading this it is clear Cherokee Investment Partners – Darden –
    were skilled in the – art of the deal.

    please read this investigative report when you get a moment:

    http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/30/nyregion/anatomy-of-a-deal-new-jersey-style.html?_r=0

  223. Andrea Rossi

    Zion:
    No comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  224. Catrina

    @Nigel Wittgenstein:
    Thank you for your comment. I agree with you.
    Cheers,
    Catrina

  225. Kurt

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I read, as you suggested, your deposition as the representative of JM Products and it is real fun: there is the proof that you are right in what you said in your comments today, but the most funny part is your confrontation with the attorney of IH, when you ask him: ” Are you sure you want me to explain how you got these photos?” (referring to the photos of the interior of the JM plant). I laughed for one hour…
    Godspeed,
    Kurt

  226. Andrea Rossi

    Kurt:
    No comment,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  227. Spencer

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Dear Dr Rossi:
    Read the deposition of the JMP representative: you are right.
    Cheers,
    Spencer

  228. Andrea Rossi

    Spencer:
    No comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  229. Nigel Wittgenstein

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    You are sincere!
    I read carefully your deposition as the representative of JM products and there can be found evidence that you never said that Johnson Matthey is or has ever been owner of JM products, as well as there is evidence of the email you sent to Tom Darden of IH confirming to him, months before the beginning of the test, that you were going to be the director of the JM Product’s plant. There is also evidence of many other facts you said, among which there is evidence of the fact that IH never complained until the end of the test and solicited enormous amount of money from their investors during the Guarantee Performance Test, which is the same period in which now they say the plant was not working, was a fraud, etc etc. Now, the cases are one of the two: either the plant was working well, they cashed the money from the investors and now they lie to avoid to pay you, or the plant was not working, but they all the same cashed the millions of the investors (in a period in which your IP was the sole in their portfolio) therefore committing fraud vs their investors.
    Not bad for the “pious” JT Vaughn and the ventriloquist Tom Darden.
    Dr Rossi: win the litigation for all of us!
    Nigel

  230. Andrea Rossi

    Nigel Wittgenstein:
    No comment,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  231. Italo R.

    Dott. Rossi, I think it would be great if you could make NOW a public exhibition of QuarkX although it has not yet reached the Sigma 5. Why wait any longer?
    Kind regards
    Italo R.

  232. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    We will make the presentation when we will be ready. Now we are not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  233. JJ

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Read the deposition: perfectly convincing is what you said. At this point is perfectly clear IH lies.
    Cheers,
    JJ

  234. Andrea Rossi

    JJ:
    No comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  235. arjen

    Dear Andrea

    I’m sure in the future we are going to celebrate once a year, The International QuarkX day.
    Which day is in your opinion THE DAY?

    kind regards and have a nice weekend.

  236. Andrea Rossi

    Arjen:
    He,he,he…maybe on Earth Day?
    Warm Regards
    A.R.