Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.

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  1. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    More information on the Toshiba CO2 Turbine.

    http://www.gasturbineworld.com/gearing-up.html

    Super-critical Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you, very interesting both the links.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  3. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Here is an interesting link (one of several) on Supercritical CO2.

    http://nextbigfuture.com/2013/12/roadmap-to-supercritical-co2-turbines.html

    One picture has an “unintentional” (???) reference to Industrial Heat, which probably refers to heat for Industrial use. Still, you never can tell…

    Also, there is a comment on the possible cost for Electricity using SCO2 with the IMSR reactor. Nothing yet about about the LENR reactor.

    Best wishes,

    Joseph Fine

  4. Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for your insight.
    I cannot give further information so far.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  5. Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    While studying the properties of various types of nickel and LiAlH4, I’m discovering there is a large variation in specifications between sources. For example, LiAlH4 can have various particle sizes that range broadly from supplier.

    —-

    Decomposition behavior of unmilled and ball milled lithium alanate (LiAlH4) including long-term storage and moisture effects

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838810012089

    Abstract

    A comprehensive study of the decomposition behavior of as received and mechanically (ball) milled LiAlH4has been carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and volumetric hydrogen desorption in a Sieverts-type apparatus. Alfa Aesar LiAlH4 powder investigated in this work has the average particle size of 9.9 ± 5.2 μm as compared to 50–150 μm for Sigma–Aldrich LiAlH4 investigated by Ares et al. [9]. High energy ball milling reduced the particle size of the present LiAlH4 to 2.8 ± 2.3 μm. In general, comparing the results of our microstructural studies with those reported by Ares et al. [9] it is clear that the morphology, microstructure and chemistry of LiAlH4 can be very dissimilar depending on the supplier from which LiAlH4 powder was purchased. We do not observe a partial decomposition of LiAlH4during milling up to 5 h under high energy impact mode. The observed melting of LiAlH4 in a DSC test is a very volatile event where the liquid LiAlH4 starts foaming and flowing out of the alumina crucible. After completion of solidification and desorption at temperatures above melting the powder resembles a lava rock. A thermal sectioning in DSC tests at pre-determined temperatures and subsequent XRD studies show that LiAlH4starts decomposing into Li3AlH6 immediately after melting. Li3AlH6 seems to be already solidified before it starts decomposing in the next stage. All volumetric desorption curves at the 120–300 °C range clearly exhibit a two-stage desorption process, Stage I and II. As received LiAlH4 is able, in a fully solid state, to desorb at 120 °C under pressure of 0.1 MPa H2 (atmospheric) as much as 7.1 wt.%H2 within ∼259,000 s (∼72 h), i.e. ∼93% of the purity-corrected H2 content from the reactions in Stage I (LiAlH4(s) → (1/3)Li3AlH6(s) + (2/3)Al(s) + H2) and Stage II ((1/3)Li3AlH6(s) → LiH + (1/3)Al + 0.5H2). The apparent activation energy for Stage I and II for unmilled LiAlH4 is equal to ∼111 and ∼100 kJ/mol, respectively. For the ball milled LiAlH4 the apparent activation energy for Stage I and II is slightly lower ∼92.5 and ∼92 kJ/mol, respectively. The water absorption up to 11.7% due to exposure to air for 1 h does not change in any drastic way the hydrogen desorption rate of ball milled LiAlH4 in Stage I. Flammability tests show that the ball milled LiAlH4 powder does not self-ignite on contact with air but can only be ignited by scraping the cylinder walls with a metal tool and then the powder burns with an open flame.

    —-

    Should professional scientists with experience handling these chemicals be selective in the particle size of the LiAlH4 they choose, while trying to replicate the heat effect detailed in the Cook-Rossi paper?

    If you can provide a couple sentences to specify the LiAlH4 component of the E-Cat (which has already been defined in your paper as a Ni-LiAlH4 system) it would be very much appreciated. For example, does the LiAlH4 work best when the particle size chosen is small or milled to be even smaller? Or does it not matter at all?

  6. Andrea Rossi

    D. Travchenko:
    We made intensive work on this issue in 2012 in Europe, for a particular Customer I cannot disclose; now we are focused on the 1 MW E-Cat and have not time for that, but eventually that could be an interesting R&D path. Is very difficult, and dangerous, but I think it could be worth to make some experiment. Maybe we can be useful for something in the field, maybe not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  7. Curiosone

    Dr Rossi:
    Have you been informed that also Volvo has started a R&D in the LENR, after your results?
    Godspeed,
    W.G.

  8. Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Thank you for the information. Another giant enters in the R&D field of LENR. They followed for years our work and the fact that decided to start a R&D is also indirectly a success for our work.
    I wish them good luck.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  9. Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    Thank you for your suggestions and support.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  10. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    Like boats.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  11. Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, a curiosity:

    why the 1MW plant is “She” and not “he” or “it”?
    Best Regards,
    Italo R.

  12. Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Firstly, I would like to say “Very Well Done!” on the progress you have made with the 1MW plant at the IH customer’s site. You have truly made great advances. As you have said many times, the best way to prove LENR to The World is to have a well tested product working and producing useful heat for a commercial customer in a real-world situation.

    I know from reading many comments here on the JoNP and on E-Cat World, that many people including myself, are waiting to reach the 400 day point in the testing and read your announcement of the results – “Positive” or “Negative” (F9!). Hopefully they will be mainly positive, and if negative only in small technicalities!

    My suggestion – which may or may not be useful:

    A Possible Method To Smooth Out Temperature Output Variations Over A Heating Cycle In The 1MW Plant

    This suggestion does not require any physical change to the plant, simply a variation in the sequence in which the control system addresses each reactor.

    I have made the following assumptions about the operation of the 1MW plant:

    1. The overall output temperature of the whole 1MW plant is the mean aggregate of the temperatures of the water/steam flowing over each individual reactor.

    2. The temperature of each reactor is raised by increasing the drive to the reactor and limited/cooled by reducing the drive so that the heat being generated in the reactor is only equal to or less than the heat being taken out of the reactor by the constant flow rate of the water/steam.

    3. In SSM, the heating is maintained over time by periodical pulses or top-ups of the heating drive, which may also be used to stabilise the reactors.

    4. In SSM, the temperature profile of the steam output from each reactor follows a waveform that is very roughly sinusoidal or triangular, and varies about a desired mean level. i.e. The heating period creates an upward slope, and the cooling results in a downward slope. These variations in temperature may range over only a few degrees, or they may be more pronounced.

    5. The control system possibly keeps the drive to all the reactors in sync, which would result in regular reinforced peaks and troughs in the aggregated plant output temperature.

    6. Another possibility is that each reactor is controlled independently, and these differing temperature maxima and minima points would be relatively unconnected between the reactors. In this case, any peaks and dips in temperature from individual reactors which coincided would be additive and cause a reinforced peak and trough in the temperature, whilst others not coincidental would possibly be subtractive and flatten the response curve. The overall result would be apparently random high and low temperature distortions in the aggregated steam output temperature.

    The Suggestion:

    To smooth out any variations in the aggregated output temperatures of these reactors, the control system could address the reactors in “pairs”. These pairs would only be logical associations and not necessarily adjacent or physically connected in any way.

    In fact different reactors could be paired up at different times, e.g. during maintenance or repair. The only requirement would be that the paired reactors produce quite similar output levels and heating response curves.

    For each pair of reactors, the control system would consider one reactor as being “in-phase” and the other reactor as being in “anti-phase” (i.e. 180 degrees out of phase).

    The regular pulses of drive would be equidistant in time, and the resulting heating and cooling would become complimentary. As one reactor in a pair heats up, the other reactor in the pair would be cooling down.

    The mean temperature of the two reactors would more closely follow the nominal chosen value and be more stable within a narrower divergence range.

    These two reactors would be operating together in a complimentary “Push-Pull” configuration to achieve a more even temperature level combined output (at the combining (summing) connection point of all the reactors).

    Furthermore, the full set of logically paired reactors in a plant could be driven in a timed sequence of evenly spaced intervals over the whole Heating/No-Heating SSM cycle.

    At any time only one reactor pair would be at its peak/anti-peak, and each pair would get its turn in the sequence before the sequence repeats, producing a more even distribution of temperature.

    The overall mean aggregated heat output of the plant would now have a much smoother and flatter profile, which should improve the consistency and stability of the heat being presented to the customer.

    You may also find that a more consistent heat output level would allow you to increase the chosen mean temperature without any individual temperature peaks straying into excessive uncontrollable levels.

    You may well be using some similar method already, but I hope this still gives you some food for thought.

    Ongoing Supportive Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  13. Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    Thank you for the link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  14. DTravchenko

    Can your technology be used also for the treatment of nuclear wastes, to go through transmutations toward less radioactive atoms?
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  15. JCRenoir

    For the Readers that want to read the article of the April 2015 issue of Science & Vie, with the article on the LENR and Hot Fusion, that is not free on the internet, but can be bought for about 3 Euro here:
    http://www.kioskquemag.com/magazine-en-ligne/science-vie
    Cheers,
    JCR

  16. Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    I hope that you are well.

    I had a question pertaining to the commercialization/industrialization of your products. How much skilled technical management do the E-CATs currently require? I understand that because of its importance you must be present with the 1MW plant, but do you think that the E-CATs are reaching a point where you could train a customer technician to keep them running? Or do they still require the expertise of you and other Industrial Heat personnel for now?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question.

  17. Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    As you correctly write, this is the first industrial application, where the performance is not measured only by gauges, but is measured by Customer satisfaction for the respected performance limits signed in a commercial contract. This makes the situation extremely important and the fact that this is the “Number One” makes my personal and my Team’s attendance important. Obviously the next plants will not need me: Customers’ technicians will be educated and certified to overview our plants, that by the way are operated by the automatic control system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  18. Milva

    Dear Andrea,
    from what we have heard and read about Dr. Darden in these days, I thought he is really a great person. A real man, before an entrepreneur.
    Frequently you express a similar business pohilosophy in the past. Therefore congratulations, you have found the right person!
    Question: can you find out which COP you arrived lately, considered you said that you have now reached periods of self-sustaining, much longer than before?
    Good job and keep healthy.
    warm regard
    Milva

  19. Andrea Rossi

    Milva:
    Thank you for your kind words. I agree with you about Dr Darden.
    I cannot give the information you are requesting until the test on the 1MW E-Cat will have been completed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  20. Mauro

    Ciao Andrea,non mi intendo per niente di fisica, ti evidenzio la pagina presa sotto da Wikipedia (sicuramente l’hai già scartata come possibile spiegazione dei tuoi risultati, ma io te lo mando lo stesso, come una signora che va al mercato e sceglie i pomodori, le carote… e le porta allo chef che saprà lui cosa fare)
    In bocca al lupo

    Hi, Andrea; I am not a physicist, but I read this on Wikipedia and brng it to you hoping it’s useful for your work.

    Salto quantico

    Quantum Leap

    In meccanica quantistica, un salto quantico (dall’inglese quantum leap or quantum jump) è il passaggio repentino di un sistema da uno stato quantico ad un altro. Il processo è definito “salto” in quanto discontinuo, vale a dire che il sistema non attraversa un continuo di stati intermedi. Il fenomeno non è previsto dalla teoria fisica classica, in cui si assumono grandezze continue.

    In quantum mechanics quantum leap is is the leap from an energetic status to the next without possibility of other statuses in the between. This is different from classic physics in such that in the latter is possible a continuous integral.

    Ad esempio, in fisica atomica l’espressione indica il passaggio di un elettrone in un atomo da uno stato di energia ad un altro[1]; l’elettrone salta da un livello di energia ad un altro senza assumere valori di energia intermedi. Il salto è dovuto all’assorbimento o all’emissione di radiazione elettromagnetica sotto forma di un fotone di energia pari alla differenza tra l’energia iniziale e finale dell’elettrone.La probabilità di assorbimento (o emissione) del fotone determina l’allargamento delle linee spettrali dell’atomo.

    The leap is due to the absorption or emission of a photon and the probability of such emission determines the extension of spectral lines of the atom.

    Cheers,
    Mauro

  21. Andrea Rossi

    Mauro:
    Yes, what you write is a foundamental principle of the quantum mechancs. We can exemplify this concept in a simple way: imagine to watch the flame of a candle; now imagine that you walk backward, increasing gradually your distance from the candle: obviously, the flame of the candle will appear to you dimmer as the distance from it will be increased. So the flame will appear gradually smaller in proportion to such distance.
    Imagine that you can increase your distance so long you want, through a potentially infinite space: along the Classic Physics the flame will continue to become smaller, smaller up to become infinitely smaller ( in mathematics we’d say “evanescent”) but never will arrive to a zero-flame status; on the contrary, in quantistic mechanics at a certain point the flame will suddenly be turned off: why? Because the last photon has been emitted and this photon contained the last amount of energy ( the “quantum”) that could keep the light of the flame turned on. This last photon’s loss behaves like a switch.
    Now, imagine the integral of the temperature of the flame versus time: for the Classic Physics this is a round curve, along a continuous and proportional decrease, without “leaps” during the elapsing of time; for the quantum mechanics it is not a continuous round curve, but is a ladder ( a sucession of leaps) wherein every step of the ladder corresponds to the loss of a photon, or a bundle of photons if you prefer.
    This elementary amount of energy per time is given by means of the Planck Constant = 4.135 x 10^-15 eV x s, symbolized with the letter “h” in Physics equations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  22. Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    1- Of course I have a commission !!! ( he,he,he…)
    2- Thank you for the very smart and useful Zerfloy ! And congratulations for making it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  23. Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    Delighted to read this. If you watch it more times, you will discover genial particulars that you can’t see in the first viewing, because too emotionally involved in the story.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  24. Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    1- The ssm is measured by proper instruments, obviously. Listening to the “voice” I can understand many things, though, but this is instinct, not technology.
    2- SSM has never been a mistery
    3- SSM is controlled and regulated
    4- Maybe I am wrong, but it seems to me that also Dr Parkhomov has got SSM cycles
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  25. Marco Serra

    Dear Andrea
    while you was describing your activities inside the container you said that you can hear Her voice and that She was in SSM. Do you mean that you can determine a SSM simply by the sond She produces ?
    I think that it’s the SSM exploitation that makes the difference between your device and the Parkhomov replica. Is the SSM still a mistery ? I mean, at the state of the art, can you predict when a SSM will start or end ? Or are the microcontrollers that simply detect when the SSM starts and in some way take profit by it ?

    God bless you
    Marco Serra

  26. AlbertN

    Dr Rossi:

    (No need to post this)

    Just to let you know the wife and I just watched ‘Le Concert’ (2009) with English subtitles. Absolutely adored it.

    Grazie mille, e buona fortuna with the Ecat plant.

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  27. Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    Could someone on JONP provide me with a link to where I could buy a DVD version of “The Concert” that is viewable by Swedish DVD-players. I would like to see this movie which you have made such a lot of advertising for. Do you have a commission? :-)

    I don’t know if this might interest you, but my team has launched a artificial intelligence application called Zerfoly on the Google Play store. It is completely free of charge and is just for amusement purposes. Maybe you might want to use it when you sit late at night in the container. In the application you create imaginary persons and write interactive dialogues between these persons. To fully understand what I mean you must really try it, but there are many possible use cases. I use it myself as an interactive diary. My kids use it and improve their spelling, imagination and general writing skills. You could for instance create a person in Zerfoly called Focardi, and in a way bring him back to life.

    The AI in Zerfoly is very generic and of a new kind. It can learn to understand any language and a person that you create could even be bilingual; for example learn to talk in both Italian and English.

    If you are interested you can read more here: http://www.zerfoly.com

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  28. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Interesting.
    I will help asap.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  29. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A very simple system. It features a UV Filter to neutralize pathogens (takes 8W of electrical power). Combined with a microcontroller that senses when the UV Filter lamp is on. The Microcontroller turns on or off a solenoid valve so that if the UV lamp fails, the water is immediately shut off. A water flow rate restrictor controls the time through the UV Filter. Likewise, it delay the start of the flow of water after the UV Lamp comes on so that all pathogens are neutralized within the water filter. The unit consumes about 2W when not active and about 20W when water is being processed. It can output 1/2 gallon per minute. Control is by the User depressing a pushbutton. The technology can be expanded to support a city water tank. Multiple units working in parallel to provide a scaled up version is possible. The water is required to be reasonably clear (a 5 micron sedimentation filter removes larger particles but would quickly clog with dirty water).

    A small eCat generating electrical power (say 50W electrical output) would be ideal. Solar is a possible source but Guatemala has extended clouds (2 – 3 weeks) during the raining season. Most home do not have heating (in the Mayan Indian areas) as it is usually warm or they burn firewood when needed.

    Steve

  30. Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    The word “rumors” is used in English with the same meaning it has in Italian.
    You will say surely thanks to me for haveng convinced you to see ” Il Concerto” ( The Concert).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  31. AlbertN

    Dr Rossi:
    Thank you for the very quick answer. Just to clarify for our non Italian speaking readers about your use of the word ‘rumor’. This is a play on words with the Italian word ‘rumore’ which means noise/sound. Is this correct?

    P.S. You have mentioned this movie “The Concert” before. You convinced me. I’ll watch it tonight.

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  32. Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    I want to add: since She is stable, tonight inside the computers container I also will hear the rumor coming from the sound of the movie “The Concert”, that tonight I will see for the umpth time. Got the CD. If somebody has not seen this movie, he doesn’t know what he has lost.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  33. AlbertN

    Dr Rossi:

    Do you sometimes have visitors at the plant? In other words is the plant off limits to all outsiders until the ‘test’ is over. There have been rumors that some have seen it and are extremely impressed …
    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  34. Andrea Rossi

    AlbertN:
    The sole rumor that I hear is the voice of the 1 MW E-Cat.
    The visits are strictly forbidden and such will remain until the end of the tests. The sole persons that had access here are the nuclear engineers and physicists to make their measurements. Here are precise contractual restrictions regarding this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  35. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    I cannot add anything to what already has been written. As I already said , data regarding the plant characteristics and the performance will be given after the end of the test on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Permissions, authorizations are the hardest part of this issue. For this reason I do not think that it will be the first one to be on. Most likely the first wave will be for utilizations like the one on course, which is production of heat for industrial purposes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Morrissey:
    Thank you for your kind comment.
    We will talk od all the negative and all the positive things after the end of the tests.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    This will depend on the Customer, after the end of the tests.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  39. Bernie Morrissey

    Andrea,
    I know that you do not share any data until all testing is done. After hearing Dr Tom Darden speak at ICCF19 I can understand why you shared everything with him. That was a great choice on your part. I hope your testing continues to go well at the 1MW plant. You always say that the results could be positive or negative. Can you comment on things that could make results negative. I think we all know the positive things.
    Bernie

  40. Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    we have read on e-catworld the description on the instrumentation installed on the 1 MW plant, taken from one post of yours.
    It seems that there are 56 sections, and each of them has two thermocouples (for temperature in and out) and pressure of steam.
    But it is necessary having a flow instrument on each of these section. Using flow value and differential temperature in each section, it is possible the compute of the transferred heat
    Am I right? Have you installed those flow meters? In this case, what type of instrument have you used?
    Thank you for your time replying.
    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  41. Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: I was excited to hear one of your pet projects is retrofitting coal power plants. Do you think decommissioned coal plants will be the first targets for your reactors? Have you identified coal plants to retrofit? Why not buy a small decommissioned plant and avoid much of the regulatory hassles?

  42. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    Happy Earth Day and Happier Earth days to come!

    Similar to earlier discussions about using heat produced by electrically driven E-Cats to produce more electricity, it may be possible to use heat produced from gas driven E-Cats to produce more gas or liquid fuels.

    The immediate product of such a process would be Synthetic Gas or SYNGAS (a mixture of CO & H2), and then, from the SYNGAS, fuels such as Methanol, Dimethyl Ether (DME), Ethanol, Butanol, etc. could be produced.

    Idaho Labs claims efficiencies as high as 70% when using electrolysis with biomass (Carbon-rich).

    http://www5vip.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/4138359.pdf

    If you believe Idaho Labs, a synthesis efficiency of 70% suggests that, even with an E-CAT COP of 5.0-10, it should be possible to produce fuel with an energy content of 3-5+ times the amount of gas consumed. (Plus some Nickel and Lithium et cetera.)

    New Co2 Fuels uses concentrated Solar Energy as its Heat Source and electrolysis to dissociate both H2O and CO2.

    http://www.newco2fuels.co.il/product/8/overview

    They claim an efficiency of 40%.

    As a plus, their SYNGAS was produced from dissociation of CO2 to CO, so any subsequent fuel combustion is approximately CO2 neutral. That is you are only recycling the CO2 you used to produce the fuel.

    The Overall COP or “O-COP” of a SYN-GAS producing E-Cat is the product of the E-CAT COP and the Synthesis process efficiency (for example, about ~ 25 %).

    For the sake of argument, assume there are three ranges for the expected E-CAT performance (COP): COP = 10, 20 or (as high as) 50.

    The 3 estimates of Overall COP are:

    O-COP = 10*(0.25) = 2.5 x;

    = 20*(0.25) = 4.0 x; or,

    = 50*(0.25) = 12.5 x.

    In other words, a SYN-GAS E-Cat could produce more fuel than it consumes, while producing heat energy for other uses. If Synthesis efficiency is higher than 25%, so much the better.

    This should be an interesting development.

    Thermal Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you for your information and your insight.
    Also in this case, we are not dealing with a product, but with a lab test. When and if it will become a product, we’ll test it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    I have just read this comment of yours from April 3 regarding the measurements you are taking, and the participation of a referee (http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=96&cpage=2#comment-1068747)
    The report of the referee will be published?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  45. Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    We are not authorized to give any information about the Customer.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  46. Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    As I said many times these data will be given after the end of the test.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  47. Silvio Caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    you can’t give the numbers of SSM, ok… Just answer with dots separated by spaces to give us a feel…
    like:
    1) . . .
    2) . . .
    3) . . .
    :-)

  48. Paul

    Andrea,

    In the spirit of cleaning up brown-field industrial sites, perhaps Cherokee should be purchasing coal power plants in the process of being decommissioned, before before people realize they still have value as power plants (and before they loose their permits). They could also make a return on investment by recycling all the railroad tracks used to transport coal to the plants.

    Paul

  49. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I will pass it on.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  50. Silvio Caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    while we are waiting the end of the 400 days test, the customer is daily using the 1MW plant to process something with the steam heat, right?
    Is it possible that going to the supermarket we are ALREADY buying and eating a food processed by the customer using the e-cat heat?
    Can you give some info about the kind of product processed by the customer?
    I think your fans would be happy to taste NOW some “e-cat cooked food”, and also the customer should be happy to receive free-advertisement…

  51. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  52. Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, your Readers may want to Google:
    DEAN KAMEN’S INVENTION FOR CLEAN WATER

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
    USA

  53. Andrea Rossi

    Ivan Idso:
    Thank you for your kind words.
    I totally agree about what you say of Dr Tom Darden.
    Yes, today is Earth Day! Your kind of celebration is smart.
    About the partial retrofit of coal plants with the E-Cats, as I said it is my pet- program, but there are enormous difficulties regarding the permissions.
    Our technology could be integrated, to help comply the new EPA requirements.
    Before this, though, we have to complete our test and R&D on the 1 MW in operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  54. Ivan Idso

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for your hard work and you seem to have found a good partner in Tom Darden based on his speech last week!

    I have a question, in my hometown in Minnesota they are decommissioning a coal plant. Part of it is burning gas for steam for heating and cooling downtown buildings but they are scrapping much of it. They, of course, are clueless to your work and I am concerned they will scrap something, such as a cooling tower, that may be useful with your power plant when it is available. What parts of an old coal plant can be reused in an lenr power plant?

    P.S. we have a celebration of Earthday this Sunday in Rochester with several classes for the public. There will be a class on lenr that is being given by Tom Wind from Energy 2.0 Society (Frank Ackland’s group). Perhaps someone from our utility company will attend and be enlightened!

    Thank you for your time.

  55. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Congratulations for your magnificent endeavour.
    I too hope to be able to help you asap.
    Can you send a detailed description of the water purification system you are dealing with? I could, perhaps, start to take a look to see how the E-Cat could be integrated there.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  56. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I have returned from Guatemala. We installed 3 Village Water Purification Systems which can provide potable water to up to 600 local villagers. We also had a medical team with us who saw more than 300 patients where medical support is nearly non-existent. Three of the team got sick themselves but were treated and recovered before the end of the trip. All of us returned safely with great memories.

    Perhaps, in the future, I will be able to install an eCat system of some type there.

  57. Andrea Rossi

    Quinton Heri:
    Now, while I am answering to you, here is 08.03 p.m. of Tuesday Aprol 21st.
    I am inside the container of the computer and, since the E-Cat is stable, I am studying.
    Her voice is a strong, regular bubbling that I can hear from where I am, and this is good. She is in ssm. I cannot give you the numbers, but the ssm cycles are long. Enough. So far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  58. Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    I am delighted to read this. To be useful to the work of teachers is very important to me. My experts also told me that most of the attention to our work comes from young people. This is very important. To all of them I reccommend to study Physics before studying LENR, otherwise they build a house without the due basement.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  59. Paul

    Andrea,

    Is one of the reasons you are spending so much time with the reactor is to prove that is safe and does not produce any (as yet undetected) harmful radiation?

    Once the e-cat is proven and on the market, you can bet that the first salvo to preserve the status quo will be that the e-cat’s safety is untested.
    (They will probably demand a 10 year study.)

    Paul

  60. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    We are making a strong work on this issue, and we have strong evidence of the safety of our E-Cat.
    By the way, we obtained already the safety certification.
    I do not think this will be the target. Anyway, wherever our foes will shoot, we will answer to their fire in the right measure. We have also Nero with us ( …beware…)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  61. Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Before solar panels, that are very easy and simple technology, based on elementary principles of Physics, got industrially developed, as they are now, half century is passed, and they are sold only because the Taxpayer is paying for them ( read well your electric power bill).
    The first industrial plant working with LENR is ours and it is gone in operation since several months. Still we must remind that the results that we will have after one year of test could be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  62. Nero

    Dear Andrea, i don’t ask the COP ;-)

    Di nuovo, caldi caldi saluti… ;-)

  63. Andrea Rossi

    Nero:
    I know, but I edited your comment because it was going to set fire ( which for a Nero is normal) on the base of BS information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  64. Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    The solar panel is real. For decades, the scientific community has accepted it as a legitimate technology that works. Right now, 99% of the scientific community is unaware that the E-Cat exists. Of those that do know about it, only a small fraction have read enough to learn the truth: the Ni-LiAlH4 technology does indeed produce massive excess heat from safe, clean nuclear reactions.

    My question: what do you think needs to be done in order to make the E-Cat be accepted by the mainstream as every bit as “real” as the solar panel?

    I would think there are three things that would help most.

    1 – A positive and successful 400 day test of the low temperature 1 megawatt plant with an order for many more units by the customer.

    2 – The mass production of E-Cat products like the 1 megawatt plant and their sale in the marketplace.

    3 – A huge widespread tsunami of replications of basic test reactors by qualified experts like Alexander Parkhomov. These replications could take place at any time and accelerate the acceptance of the technology, unlike the results of the 400 day test that will not happen until several months from now.

    Thank you.

  65. QuintonHeri

    Dr Rossi:
    Where are you now? How is going the 1 MW E-Cat now? How “Her” voice? How long are the self sustained mode cycles?

  66. Paul

    Andrea,

    I trust that when you are ready to go to market all of the “legal administrative” concerns will have been addressed.

    Paul

  67. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  68. Paul

    Andrea,

    Assuming the results of the one year 1MW tests are positive, how long will it take IH to start manufacturing 1MW plants for the market place?

    How many do you think they could produce in 2016 (again assuming current tests are successful)?

    I understand your answer is purely a projection and we will not hold you to its accuracy.

    Paul

  69. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    We are ready for the production and the outsourcing system has been organized for any evenience. Obviously we must wait for the results of the test on course that, I repeat, could be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  70. Nero

    Dr Rossi:
    Please let us know what is the COP of the 1 MW plant

  71. Andrea Rossi

    Nero:
    Same answer I gave to Italo R.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  72. Andrea Rossi

    Christofer Calder:
    I cannot give this information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  73. Andrea Rossi

    Neri B.:
    Same answer I gave to Italo R.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  74. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    Sorry, I have edited your text not to spam it.
    Tha data will be given after the end of the test on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  75. Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    I understand, sorry, I have been slow…
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  76. Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea,
    it was not a real question. I had concluded my second last post on the Thermal Acoustic Engine (TAE) with “???”, to mean my doubts about TAE readiness for the market. In your reply you just made these doubts clear. So, in my last post, I said that I was sharing your answer. That’s it. And congrats for the news you have disclosed (and you are going to disclose, I suppose, in a matter of months …).
    CM

  77. Italo R.

    Dr Rossi:
    Can we know what is the COP of the 1 MW plant?

    Kind Regards
    Italo R.

  78. Neri B.

    Dear Andrea,
    We are curious to know the COP of the 1 MW plant

  79. Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Can you please tell us how many grams of fuel in total is currently being used in your one megawatt reactor that is being Beta tested? That would be an interesting statistic.

    All the Best,

    Christopher Calder

  80. Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena: I do not understand your question. Please rephrase it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  81. Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea,
    About thermo-acoustic engine: I do share your way to answer my three ???.
    Warm regards,
    CM

  82. Curiosone

    Andrea Rossi:
    We saw that there are tornados in Florida: does this affect your work with the E-Cat?
    W.G.

  83. DTravchenko

    Andrea:
    Did you read that Dr Parkhomov has found in his experiments of replication of the Rossi Effect has found isotopical shifts similar to the ones of the Lugano report?
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  84. JCRenoir

    Andrea Rossi:
    Do you know that the article about the 1 MW E-Cat on Science & Vie has been read in many schools and that many comments are made in France about it?
    JCR

  85. Fyodor

    Nicola

    I don’t know enough about the mechanics of heat generation, but my understanding is that nuclear power plants use enormous quantities of water at high pressures/speed passing through the reactor so that the water is only heated up to 450 degrees, which is something you wouldn’t need for an hot-cat heating at 600 or 1000 degrees. I don’t know how easily it would convert to another cooler heat source. It’s also my understanding that nuclear doesn’t have especially high operating costs (though non-trivial ones), once the capital costs of construction are made, since the fuel costs are small.

    I’d have to think that coal plants or natural gas plants, with their high ongoing fuel costs would be more likely targets. Who can say?

  86. Andrea Rossi

    Nicola Cortesi:
    This is quite an issue. You know what? This is the classic case in which to make the papers is far more difficult than to make the technology.
    In principle, I agree with you, I always sustained that many cats are more convenient and safe than few tigers, or lions. This principle has been recently taken in consideration also in the highest echelons of astrophysics: the future astronomic observation stations will be made by many very small mirrors interconnected instead of big mirrors, because the clouds of microscopic mirrors are far less expensive ( by two orders of magnitude) than the big ones used today.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  87. Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    It is interesting and Airbus is a serious concern, but we are talking of experimantal prototypes, far to be of use in industrial production. Obviously a direct production of mechanic power with an efficiency of 35% should be extremely interesting for LENR, but to say “should I have a thermo-acoustic engine with an efficiency or 35% I could apply it to LENR” is equivalent, as of today, to say ” should I have 6 balls I could be a pinball”.
    As soon as such a device will really exist, be sure, we will buy it and make tests.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  88. Andrea Rossi

    Hugh De Vries:
    Fly down. Step by step, brick by brick.
    We are working hard to get the confirmation that an industrial plant can produce heat reliably. We still have not a confirmation of this fact and the results can still be either positive or negative.
    We are making a house, let’s do it before thinking to be able to make all the skyscrapers of New York City.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  89. Nicola Cortesi

    Dear Andrea, Dear Fyodor,

    do you think current ~1 GW Nuclear Power Plants could be reconverted to E-Cat Power Plants of equivalent power with ten of thousands of 10-KW E-Cat running in parallel? (An E-Lion or E-Dragon?). Nuclear Power Plants are ultemately big thermal power stations, converting steam at ~450 C in electricity with an efficiency of 30-32%. As you know, using E-CAT’s steam, which is above 1000 C, the efficiency of the Carnot cycle increases up to 40-48%. Not bad for a totally safe, cheap and carbon-free 1-GW Power Plant!

    Hot Regards,

    Nicola

  90. Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea,
    Though thermo-acoustic engines (TAEs) has always been largely disregarded, up today their efficiencies compare with advanced internal combustion engines, with an outstanding advantage given them from being external combustion engines. I do not know about Airbus programs for its TAEs, but last March a manager from this Company, in Milan, launched a kind of challenge that sounded more or less this way “given a working LENR heat source, we are willing (and ready) to couple it with our TAE to produce electricity … 35% (or more) efficiency”. ???
    Regards,
    CM

  91. Hugh DeVries

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The following quote is from:
    UPDATE #8 (April 17)
    Alan Smith, April 16 2015

    “Speakers at this conference have increasingly talked about transmutation of ‘fuel’ into a startlingly large variety of elements. This leads one to hope that maybe 10 years in the future we will be able to make one element into another as we wish- analogous to the way that biotechnologists are finding methods to produce complex proteins- using living systems as manufacturing systems.”

    It would seem that the study of LENR will proceed on two different but related paths of development–energy production and element transmutation. I guess then “E-Cat” can mean either “Energy Catalyzer” or “Element Catalyzer”.

    Best wishes,
    Hugh

  92. Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    I saw, but it is an experimental prototype. When it will be in the market, if ever, we’ll test it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  93. Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    Interesting.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  94. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  95. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You may be interested in looking at this paper that has been published at E-Cat World. http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/04/19/a-possible-explanation-for-observed-lenr-heating-behavior-and-transmutation-using-simple-physics-principles-stephen/

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  96. Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea and Fyodor,
    about heat conversion to electricity, I find quite interesting the thermoacoustic engine patented (reportedly) by Airbus: no moving parts, lightweight, heat conversion to heat @ 35% efficiency, in the kW range.
    Did you hear about it?
    Regards,
    CM

  97. Fyodor

    My point, which I articulated poorly, I guess, is that it seems that modern heat to electricity systems are still very expensive.

    You’ve suggested that you hope to eventually mass produce e-cats such that you can sell the products at $100/KW thermal, which would obviously be a fantastic value.

    But the existing solutions I’ve seen for thermal to electricity conversion seem to be much more expensive. I’ve seen solutions in the multiple dollars per watt range (or several thousand dollars per kilowatt). I know that Dean Kamen is hoping to eventually get the per unit manufacturing cost of his system down to $1000/KW, which would be higher after capital costs, profits,advertising, etc.

    Thus it seems that even if you push the cost of the e-cat down quite a bit, the system cost will be dominated by heat to electricity conversion equipment (though obviously still cheaper than coal or natural gas because there is no fuel cost).

    I was wondering if the economics of this was something you had investigated as part of your work and had any ideas as to how to do more cheaply convert heat to electricity.

  98. Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    Now is clear.
    We can do nothing about the costs of the systems to convert heat into electricity. Their costs obviously are the same independently from the source of the steam.
    Direct conversion system have too low esfficiency, so far.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  99. Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    I hope that you’re well.

    This may be a bit far afield, but I’m wondering if you’d done any investigation into the economics of heat to electricity conversion and how it might be done efficiently. I think that you’ve suggested that with mass production you might get the costs of heat down to $100/KW, but it looks like this would be dwarfed by the costs of existing heat-to-electricity conversion systems, which run $1500-5000/kw. Has there been any business investigation into the economics of potential solutions?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question and for your generosity with the community here.

  100. Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    Please review your numbers, because your comment is senseless. Probably there is some typo.
    Please correct to allow an answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.